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        一雙筷子的誕生與流行:既是餐具,也是文化象征

        2019年05月17日 00:17 來源:中國新聞網 參與互動 

          中新網客戶端北京5月17日電(記者 上官云)一頭圓、一頭方,長約數寸……日常掂在手里的筷子平平無奇,看上去似乎沒啥閃光點。但事實上,它的身上卻承載著厚重的文化與禮儀,由古至今依然如此。一雙筷子從誕生到流行,既是餐具的演變,也是文化傳播的過程。

          一雙筷子的幾個名字

          早先,筷子稱為“梜”,還有一個名字叫“箸”。據稱,筷子是古時姜子牙因神鳥而創造竹絲,抑或是大禹治水時發明:由于工作繁忙,為了省時間,吃飯時他就找了兩根樹枝做工具。

          資料圖。 湯彥俊 攝

        資料圖。 湯彥俊 攝

          以上當然歸于傳說。有一種觀點看上去比較合理:鉆木取火的方式出現后,茹毛飲血的先民們吃上了有溫度的熟食,再用手抓就不太方便,早期的筷子應運而生。

          雖然只是猜測,但先秦時期“箸”只用來夾菜是真的。《禮記·曲禮上》中說:“羹之有菜者用梜;其無菜者不用梜。”羹不是現在所說的湯,而是指用肉或菜做成的帶汁食物,用筷子取食顯然更合適。

          “新石器時代遺址中出現了不少骨制的短棍,以前被認為是發笄,但龍虬莊考古隊的報告認為是筷子的原型。”歷史學家王晴佳關注飲食文化多年。他認為,如果從廣義角度理解筷子,這種說法就或許有道理。

          “筷子”之名的出現,應該在明代。明代《菽園雜記》記載:“民間俗諱,各處有之,而吳中為甚。如舟行諱‘住’,諱‘翻’,以‘箸’為‘快兒’。”

          由于“箸”和“住”同音,船家特別忌諱,改稱“快兒”,希望船可以快行,討個口彩。考慮到筷子的材質一般是竹木,所以又加了個竹字頭。

          這個名字在民間廣泛流傳,久而久之,當時的士大夫階層也開始使用。到現代,則統一稱為“筷子”。

          常見餐具亦可窺見歷史

          除了比較常見的竹筷、木筷外,還有一些不同材質的筷子。安陽殷墟曾出土6支青銅箸頭,可以接柄使用;商朝晚期和周朝的遺址中則出土過象牙和青銅制成的“箸”。

          南北朝時,有帝王把金絲鑲嵌紅木箸賞賜給百官。到了實力雄厚的唐代,筷子的類型更加花樣百出,有金筷子、玉筷子等,十分珍貴。

          一雙筷子的背后,還可能藏著一段歷史。《韓非子·喻老》以及《史記·宋微子世家》中都提到一件有關象牙筷子的往事。后者記載:“紂始為象箸,箕子嘆曰:‘彼為象箸,必為玉桮’。”

          商朝時,紂王喜歡使用象牙做成的筷子,箕子知道后,覺得十分可怕。因為象牙筷子無疑是一種十分奢侈的餐具,由此而往,說不定紂王還會喜歡上玉杯等更奢侈的物品,逐漸沉湎于鋪張靡費的生活。

          果然,后來紂王貪圖享樂,最終被武王帶兵攻破都城。“象箸玉杯”的典故即與此有關。

          背后綿延已久的文化

          對中國人而言,筷子卻遠遠不是餐具那么簡單。

          比如,筷子大多是七寸六分長,代表人有“七情六欲”;就造型來講,筷子一頭一般是圓的,一頭是方的,象征“天圓地方”,反映人們對世界最樸素最基本的看法。

        資料圖:<a target='_blank' href='http://www.beerwinner.com/'>中新社</a>記者 于海洋 攝

        資料圖:中新社記者 于海洋 攝

          過去,筷子的使用很有規則,要收放有度。宋代朱熹的《童蒙須知》中規定,“凡飲食,舉匙必置箸,舉箸必置匙,食已,則置匙箸于案。”相當優雅。

          “小孩開始學習使用筷子的時候,就被父母及其他大人告訴他們使用筷子的禮儀,比如不能在碗里撥弄、挑揀食物,還有筷子不能用來移動、敲擊碗盞等等。”王晴佳解釋。

          現代社會,或許已經沒了那么多禮儀。但筷子所代表的飲食文化,早已浸潤到中國人的日常生活中:那句常常能聽到的“多個人多雙筷子”,簡簡單單幾個字,背后是溫馨的情感。

          王晴佳說,在中國流傳的許多文學作品、歷史讀物中,筷子被用來表達情感,喜怒哀樂均有,如“投箸”、“舉箸”等,顯示筷子不僅是餐具,而且還有文化的象征意義。

          “筷子文化圈”如何逐漸形成?

          關于世界文化,曾有一個很有趣的劃分方式:根據飲食習慣可以大致分筷子文化圈、手指取食圈、刀叉取食圈,對應各自的地域文明。

          在國外越來越多的中餐館,客觀上對筷子“流行”起到很好的推動作用。在新書《筷子:飲食與文化》中,王晴佳提到了筷子的“全球史”:他認為,今天,筷子成了“筷子文化圈”中主要餐具,既反映了飲食的需要,也展現了中國文化對其他周邊地區的影響。

          “從飲食的需要來說,自唐代開始,人們的主食開始從小米轉向小麥和大米,有助筷子成為了重要的餐具,比如吃面條和餃子,筷子比勺子要方便多了。”王晴佳說。

        出版社供圖

        出版社供圖

          輪到火鍋和壽司流行,使用筷子還是最佳就餐方式,繼續反應生活習慣和禮儀的變化:比如出現了公筷和一次性筷子等等。由此而言,筷子地位的上升,有著飲食和文化的兩種必要。

          “我以全球的視野研究起源于古代中國的筷子,希望展現另一個觀察視角:那就是與漢字一樣,筷子是中國和東亞文化的兩個重要象征。”王晴佳總結,“如果說中國文明持續發展、演化,那么筷子和漢字就是最好的證明”。(完)

        【編輯:梁靜】

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