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        小學生每天僅勞動12分鐘 勞動教育不只是高考作文題

        2019年06月10日 10:02 來源:半月談 參與互動 

          導讀

          國內外相關調查顯示:美國小學生平均每天的勞動時間為1.2小時,韓國0.7小時,而中國小學生平均每天的勞動時間只有12分鐘。

          半月談記者在部分省份采訪了解到,中小學生自理能力缺失與勞動意識淡薄現象普遍存在,勞動時間、勞動能力“雙赤字”情況突出。

          “沒時間”“不會勞動”

          “孩子在家基本沒什么勞動,每天吃飯要家長盛,書包也要媽媽收拾。他自己能穿衣服、洗漱我就知足了。”“孩子能自己洗澡洗內衣,我規定她每周洗一次碗,此外就沒有別的家務勞動了。”記者隨機采訪家長、學生了解到,經常整理房間、打掃衛生、洗碗的小學生不足三成,會包餃子、炒雞蛋的小學生不足一成,學生日均家務勞動時間不足10分鐘。

          孩子為何不做家務?很多學生、家長坦言,不是“不愛勞動”,而是“沒時間”“不會勞動”。

          “媽媽根本不讓我勞動,就是讓我好好學習,把作業寫完就行。有時候想幫他們洗碗,他們說這些活兒都是大人干的,你趕緊進屋寫作業去吧。”一名三年級小學生說。

          “如果沒有那么多學習任務,就有時間做家務,我覺得我兒子就很愿意洗水果,做水果拼盤。但現在的情況是,連補習班的作業都寫不完,哪有時間做家務。”沈陽家長田女士說。

          一些中小學生表示,學校寒暑假作業中有“幫媽媽做家務”“養動植物”“學習包餃子”等內容。一般來說,只有在假期,家長為了孩子完成作業才讓其幫忙干家務,平時不會主動讓孩子勞動。

          記者在部分小學采訪發現,學生不會包書皮、不會整理書包、不會疊衣服、不會縫扣子的情況并不罕見。甚至有一些五六年級男生不會系鞋帶,縫扣子連穿針都不會。

          “我國青少年勞動教育缺失問題,已到了令人擔憂的地步。”遼寧一名專家表示,某縣婦聯對一所重點中學高一學生做過一次調查,從沒洗過衣服的占79%,不會或不敢使用電飯鍋、液化氣爐的占67%。

          課本化、游戲化、表面化

          在學校,勞動教育情況也不盡如人意。記者在一些小學了解到,學校當前的勞動課實際是“綜合實踐課”。從小學三年級開始,每學期10課時,每周不足1課時,包括信息技術教育、勞動與技術教育、社區服務和社會實踐活動等內容。

          其中,真正動手實踐的內容并不多。記者翻閱了四年級(下)和六年級(下)兩本教材發現,每本教材有10節課目錄,其中只有約四分之一為動手的活動,如四年級教材有“神奇的針線”“玩陀螺”;六年級教材有“一起做紫菜包飯”“玩泥巴”等,其他多是“春季常見流行病的調查”“母校情”“地震有前兆嗎”等常識性課程。

          多地教育部門調查顯示,學校勞動教育存在一些共性問題亟待重視和解決:絕大多數學校僅滿足于開了課、完成課時,勞動教育課本化、游戲化、表面化現象突出。許多學校以學生安全為由,以課代勞、以教代勞、以說代勞、以畫代勞普遍存在。由于擔心勞動操作過程中出現安全事故,學校一般通過安排手工制作、課堂操作等活動來組織勞動課教學,離“出出力、流流汗”的勞動體驗要求相差甚遠。

          此外,政府購買服務范圍擴大,過去學校有崗位責任制,每個班要包一塊區域的衛生,而現在走廊、衛生間、窗戶等都有專門保潔人員負責,學生擔任值日生的工作量大幅“縮水”,只是簡單的擦黑板、掃地、擦窗臺等。

          更有甚者,為了不耽誤孩子放學,有的學校花班費雇人打掃教室,直接替代了學生早晚值日勞動。

          社會實踐蜻蜓點水、走馬觀花

          校外勞動資源同樣匱乏。在一些城市,過去的學農學工學軍基地變成了綜合實踐基地,分中學生和小學生基地兩種。綜合實踐基地內部設置比較完善,有書法、剪紙、手工編織多種課程,集藝術教育、科普教育、勞動教育、生命教育于一體。但目前的情況是,因場地有限,學生眾多,小學階段往往只有三四年級的學生每學期可以去實踐基地活動一天。

          學農基地稀缺是各地普遍面臨的情況。江蘇省第一家農村社會實踐基地——行知基地,是農事勞動基地,里面有30余畝果園、茶園等,加上150畝荷花園,已經累計接待了近40萬名中外學生來這里參加勞動。記者在這里看到,墻上掛了30多所南京中小學的實踐基地牌子。

          “學生來的數量是不少,但具體到個人,可能整個初中或高中階段也就來個三五天。勞動教育不可能光靠基地,更多的還在平時生活中。”南京行知教育集團校長楊瑞清說。

          南京金陵中學河西分校校長朱焱認為,現有的生態園讓學生們短期勞動或者研學,收效甚微。很多學校的學生是帶著優越感、懷著春游心態來走馬觀花一下,最后對整個播種、生長、收獲過程還是不甚了了。“只有自己參與勞動,才能體會到即使養棵花也是不容易的。”

          采訪中,很多學生沒有參加過公益勞動、志愿者活動。遼寧鞍山市呼吸聯盟志愿者協會負責人伊成略多次組織城市志愿者家庭到農村和貧困家庭對接,開展志愿服務。他介紹,很多參加活動的孩子已經是小學高年級甚至初中生,卻是第一次下鄉,第一次參加志愿者活動。“有孩子以為西紅柿是長在樹上的,有孩子第一次看到了只在書上、電視上見過的雞、鵝、豬……孩子們第一次用壓水井澆地、去采摘果子,都特別興奮。”

          即使在離家庭最近的社區,開展勞動活動和教育也并不容易。廣州小學生家長梅女士說,孩子基本沒有參與過社區活動。“我們也聽說過去社區幫孤寡老人做家務、去陪伴自閉癥兒童,或在社區宣傳垃圾分類等,但這些活動一般都依托學校或公益組織安排,單個家庭很難介入。”

          受人力、安全隱患等問題所限,大部分社區沒有專門對接學校開展活動。一名小學校長說,學校組織社區實踐目前大多帶有偶然性和隨機性,沒有形成常態機制。

          來源:《半月談內部版》2019年第6期;

          原標題:《小學生每天勞動12分鐘,中小學勞動教育面臨家校社三缺位》

          半月談記者:王瑩鄭天虹蔣芳

        【編輯:楊維思】

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